Biomolecules and Polymers

In Organic chemistry, Biomolecules and Polymers has an important role.

Let us get into this topic.

The molecule that is formed by the production of living organisms is termed as Biomolecule. These molecules contains percentages of Hydrogen, Oxygen, carbon and also less content of sulphur, phosphorus.

Biomolecules is formed by the combination of four classes like Nucleic Acids, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates.

Polymers can be defined as monomers which link up to form large molecules. These are termed as Macromolecules.

Now let us individually look at the classification biomolecules.

  • Carbohydrates: These include monosaccharides, polysaccharides which are made up of both monomers and polymers.

Example of carbohydrates is sugar.

  • Nucleic Acids: These are mainly used to store the genetic information and for transferring it from generation to the next.

Nucleic acids are made up of long strands that are popularly called as nucleotides.

These consists of two Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)

Nucleotides consists of three parts. Sugar containing five carbons, Phosphate group and a Nitrogen base.

  • Lipids: These are the heterogeneous compounds consisting of fats, oils etc. These are classified based on the physical properties like solubility level in non-polar and polar solvents.

Lipids are classified into Simple and Complex.

Examples of simple lipids is wax. On the other hand, example of complex lipids is glycolipids, aminolipids etc.

  • Proteins: It is the most important substance in all the living beings. These are termed as complex molecules which are responsible for most crucial functions in the body. For example: Cell functioning etc

Examples of proteins are kinase etc.

Applications of Biomolecules and Polymers:


  • In the purification of water
  • 3D printing
  • In making equipment for various sports and aerospace


  • In preparing the nanoparticles
  • Nanomaterials synthesis process
  • Nanomaterials preparation using amino acids

This is just the basic elucidation on Biomolecules and Polymers. Get to know the type of questions, some key points of this chapter in Er. Dushyant Kumar’s video

Here’s the link:

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