Introduction to Metallurgy and Principles

Metallurgy is a process of extraction of metals. Generally these are mixed with the soil, sand, rocks which are known as ores.

Image result for metallurgy

So before getting into the topic first you need to understand what are ores and its types?


An Ore is a natural process of formation of rocks which contains minerals which very important in our daily life.

From these ores we will extract the minerals with the help of various techniques. These ores are divided into four groups they are:

  1. Native ores
  2. Oxidized ores
  3. Sulpharised ores
  4. Halide ores

Native ores:

  • These are the ores which are available in Free State as they are formed in the company of rock or impurities like clay or sand etc.
  • Examples: silver, gold etc.

Oxidized ores:

These type of ores consist of oxides like carbonates, phosphate and it also include silicate, carbonate ores like limestone, calamine etc.

Sulpharised ores:

It consists of sulphides like iron, mercury, lead etc and to extract we use various techniques.

Halide Ores:

  • These type of ores like halide are not much available in nature and most common halides are chlorides which include horn silver (AgCl) carnallite KCl. MgCl2.6H2O and fluorspar (CaF2) etc.

General process of extracting metals:

To extract any type of metals we use a particular process and these are of six steps:

  1. Crushing and Grinding:

It is the first process in the metallurgy in this step we will crush the ores and make it into a fine powder which is known as pulverization.

  1. Concentration of ores:

It is the process of removing impurities from the ore and then we concentrate the ore by performing following methods

  1. Hydrolytic Method:
Image result for hydrolytic method of metallurgy

As shown in the figure first we need to pour the ore on the sloping area contains grooves and a vibrating corrugated table in which water is allowed to flow over surface so that the ore particles settle in the grooves and impurities are washed away.

  1. Magnetic Separation:
Image result for magnetic separation of metallurgy

After separation of impurities from ore we need to separate the magnetic particles from non-magnetic particles and this is done by placing the crushed ore on a belt and this is rotated between two wheels in which one wheel is magnetic.

Therefore the magnetic particles get separated from the non-magnetic particles as shown in the figure.

  1. Froth floatation:
Image result for froth flotation of metallurgy

In this process we take the crushed ore and pour it in a tank which contains a mixture of oil and water and also compressed air passing through it.

When we pour the ore it gets wet by oil and separated from the impurities as the ore is lighter it settles down and the impurities forms froth and it floats on the surface of water.

  1. Roasting and calcinations:

The process of roasting is used in the case of sulphides. It is the process of heating the ore in the presence of oxygen.

And this process of heating the ore is done in the absence of oxygen then it is known as calcinations. Generally we use this process for the ores which contains carbonates or hydro carbonates.

This is the process of extraction of minerals to understand it more in detail you watch YouTube videos of ER.Dushyant Kumar.

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